Cultures that focus on dreams, categorize them and label them—especially those that identify some types of dreams as prophetic—recognize that some dreams can be related, either directly and indirectly, to the fate and well-being of the dreamer. The concept of selfscape dreams can help us to think through and analyze disturbing dreams and nightmares because it reminds us that dream processes always engage and implicate self -processes, and so are never mere reflections of the world, other people or the body.
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In some instances they capture, either fairly literally or fairly metaphorically, the way in which the self is overwhelmed or violated by events or people. In other instances, they may capture how the self is overwhelmed or violated by its own real or imagined impulses, desires, emotions or physiological processes. But in none of these instances is the imagery of a dream transparent or unambiguous. Indeed we could well imagine the same dream image meaning different things to different people even in the same cultural setting.
In all of these examples, the self is overwhelmed or afflicted, but for different, though perhaps interconnected, reasons. Such ambiguity and fluidity in dreaming processes should also caution us against too readily presuming that dream typologies of different kinds, whether our own etic categorizations or those of the people we study, are necessarily correlated strongly with dream phenomenology.
For example, in all three samples here and in many elsewhere see, e. But of course such culturally constituted understandings and symbolism could be, and probably are, recruited by dreamers to express other kinds of experiences as well, including perhaps very idiosyncratic ones. For example, used metaphorically, spirit attack images seem an especially apt way of expressing the feeling of being attacked more generally, perhaps as a result of an actual experience of violence or trauma.
In this case, recurring dreams of spirit attack, though culturally normative in most instances, might themselves be a symptom of a PTSD-like disorder. Since the dreaming mind transgresses and eludes many cultural and conceptual boundaries, our thinking about it must be fluid and contingent as well. Only such ethnographically grounded studies will enable us to begin to disentangle the body—mind—culture interactions that are a part of every disturbing dream and nightmare, whether or not related to actual trauma and violence.
I am very grateful to Devon Hinton for asking me to participate in this special issue.
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This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Open Access. First Online: 18 April This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Barrett , p. Jacobson emphasizes that his study underlines the importance of notions such as worldview and behavioral environment for culturally contextualizing the experience, interpretation, and sharing of these [dream] events.
Acknowledgment I am very grateful to Devon Hinton for asking me to participate in this special issue. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and source are credited. Barrett, Deirdre, ed. Google Scholar. In Trauma and Dreams. Deirdre Barrett, ed. Brewin, C. Dalgleish, and S. Psychological Review 4 — CrossRef Google Scholar. Damasio, Antonio R. New York: Avon Books. New York: Harcourt Brace. Fairbairn, W.
Ronald D. London: Tavistock.
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New York: Basic Books. Hollan, Douglas a Selfscape Dreams. Jeannette Marie Mageo, ed. Roger Ivar Lohmann, ed. New York: Palgrave. Dreaming — Hollan, Douglas Dreaming in a Global World.
The Influence of Culture on the Experience and Interpretation of Disturbing Dreams
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Malden, MA: Blackwell. Hollan, Douglas W. New York: Columbia University Press. Kandel, Eric R.
Understanding Trauma - Laurence J. Kirmayer - Innbundet () » Bokkilden
New York: W. Kinzie, J. Laurence J. Kirmayer, Robert Lemelson, and Mark Barad, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kohut, Heinz The Restoration of the Self. Schacter, Daniel L.
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Shalev, Arieh Y. Young, A. The second section of the book reviews a wide range of clinical approaches to the treatment of the effects of trauma. The final section of the book presents cultural analyses of personal, social, and political responses to massive trauma and genocidal events in a variety of societies. This work goes well beyond the neurobiological models of conditioned fear and clinical syndrome of post-traumatic stress disorder to examine how massive traumatic events affect the whole fabric of a society, calling forth collective responses of resilience and moral transformation.
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